CoreOS released reference implementation of an open specification, standardizing the packaging of images and runtime environments for Linux containers.
Open source version of Google's container stack. Applications can be made ‘container aware,’ creating and manage their own subcontainers.
LXC – Linux Containers
Provided userland tooling to take advantage of the cgroups and namespacing functionality in the Linux kernel.
Control Groups merged into Linux kernel
Process Containers were renamed Control Groups and merged into kernel version 2.6.24.
Open Virtuzzo (OpenVZ)
Released by Parallels (formerly SWsoft), code was not released as part of the official Linux kernel, but offered a wide array of features include resource managements and live migration.
Operating System virtualization implemented by patching the Linux kernel. Experimental patches continue to be available, but the last stable patch was released in 2006.
Developed chroot system call, which provided process isolation. Chroot was added to BSD in 1982.
Process isolation using kernel cgroups and namespaces, combined with tools to build and retrieve named images.
Cloud Foundry Warden
Initially an open source project at VMware, Warden developed a client-server model to manage a collection of containers across multiple hosts and includes a service to manage cgroups, namespaces and process life cycle.
AIX Workload Partitions (WPARs)
Released in AIX 6.1, allowed virtualization of an OS without creating a full LPAR on an IBM System.
Developed by Google (primarily Paul Menage and Rohit Seth) to aggregate processes within the Linux kernel for resource management.
Oracle Solaris Zones
Similar to jails, but Zones were able to leverage features like snapshots and cloning from ZFS.
Introduced jails, early container technology, developed by Derrick Woolworth (R&D Associates) then adopted by Poul-Henning Kamp.